Dewasa ini, teknologi komunikasi berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satu produk perkembangan teknologi komunikasi yaitu media sosial. Media sosial memudahkan dan mempercepat seseorang untuk mendapatkan berbagai informasi. Media sosial juga dijadikan sebagai tempat mengembangkan dan membagikan informasi. Hanya dengan menekan tombol, semua informasi bisa dikuasai. Mulai dari informasi tentang ekonomi, budaya, sosial, bencana alam, ilmu kimia, sampai ilmu agama bisa ditemukan di media sosial. Informasi tersebut berupa tulisan, gambar, video, audio mapun gabungan antara tulisan dan gambar, tulisan dan video, dan lain sebagainya sebagai kemasan yang menarik.

Hal itulah merupakan salah satu faktor yang mendorong masyarakat meninggalkan dakwah konvensional. Dakwah konvensional yaitu dakwah yang mempertemukan da’i dan jamaah secara langsung dengan batasan waktu dan tempat tertentu. Sehingga masyarakat harus menyesuaikan waktu dan berpindah tempat untuk mengikuti dakwah tersebut. Selain itu, dakwah konvensional membutuhkan alat pendukung seperti microfon, sound system, lokasi dan alat pendukung yang lain.

Berbeda dengan dakwah konvensional. Dalam dakwah digital, para da’i tidak harus bertemu langsung dengan jamaah. Dakwah digital juga tidak dibatasi oleh waktu dan tempat. Dakwah digital dilakukan melalui media sosial, sehingga para da’i bisa menyampaikan dakwah dimanapun dan kapanpun. Sedangkan jamaah bisa mengikuti dakwah tersebut pada waktu dan tempat yang diinginkan. Misalkan ketika da’i menyampaikan dakwah pada hari Senin, maka jamaah bisa mengikuti dakwah di hari Senin atau di lain hari. Hal ini tentu memberikan kemudahan bagi para da’i dan jamaah dalam melakukan dakwah. Maka dari itu, cukup dengan handphone dan jaringan internet, semua orang bisa melakukan dan atau mengikuti dakwah digital di sosial media.

Dakwah digital ini terus mengalami perkembangan. Perkembangan dakwah digital  beringingan dengan meningkatnya jumlah pengguna media sosial. Berdasarkan laporan terbaru Hootsuite, pada tahun 2020 terdapat 160 juta penduduk Indonesia yang aktif menggunakan internet. Sehingga menjadi wajar jika dakwah dilakukan di media sosial karena bisa mencakup masyarakat luas.

Media sosial yang biasa digunakan sebagai sarana dakwah yaitu facebook, youtube, instagram, twitter, telegram, whatsapp dan lain sebagainya. Para da’i akan membuat konten video, poster, maupun artikel. Kemudian konten tersebut dimuat pada media sosial milik pribadi atau milik organisasi. Pengguna sosial bisa melihat, menyimpan dan membagikan konten yang dimuat tersebut. Sehingga konten dakwah bisa mudah ditemukan di media sosial.

Dibalik manfaat media sosial untuk berdakwah, terdapat berbagai permasalahan yang berpotensi menghambat kesuksesan dakwah. Masalah tersebut diantaranya:

  1. Tidak ada perbedaan antara konten dakwah yang asli atau palsu. Semua konten dakwah bisa dimuat pada media sosial baik yang asli maupun yang palsu. Dalam konten tersebut juga tidak ditemukan tanda yang membedakan antara konten asli atau palsu. Sehingga konten dakwah di media sosial diragukan kebenarannya.
  2. Konten dakwah bersifat provokatif dan radikal berkembang bebas di media sosial. Sebenarnya, pemerintah telah memblokir konten dakwah yang bersifat provokatif dan radikal. Akan tetapi, konten tersebut sangat masif diproduksi sehingga tetap bisa diakses melalui media sosial.
  3. Konten dakwah bisa diproduksi oleh orang yang tidak memiliki wawasan kebangsaan dan ilmu agama. Apalagi jika ketika konten tersebut dijadikan pedoman oleh orang awam, maka akan membahayakan

Konten dakwah yang memiliki masalah tersebut dikemas dengan menarik dan kekinian. Sehingga banyak pengguna media sosial yang mengakses konten tersebut. Tidak hanya menjadi konsumsi pribadi, pengguna media sosial akan berlomba-lomba membagikan konten tersebut tanpa mempedulikan kebenaran, sifat dan sumber konten tersebut. Semakin banyak yang mengakses, maka semakin banyak yang membagikan sehingga semakin cepat konten tersebut berkembang di media sosial.

Dengan kondisi yang demikian, maka media sosial mampu memberikan kemudahan dalam berdakwah. Akan tetapi dengan cakupan yang luas dan bebas, maka dakwah cenderung tidak bisa dikontrol. Menurut Gery R. Bunt dalam bukunya Islam in the Digital, hal tersebut bisa berdampak langsung pada terjadinya reduksi kebenaran agama. Apakah para da’i akan membiarkan kebenaran agama tereduksi begitu saja? (Puspita Hanum)



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